Mechyrdian Language

Mechyrdian (Mec. Šprah Mehurdias "Language of Mechyrdia", Mehurdias "of Mechyrdia") is the official language of the Empire of Mechyrdia.

Phonology

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Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ (/ŋ/)
Stop Voiceless p /p/ t /t/ c(i) /ts/ č /tʃ/ c, qu /k/
Voiced b /b/ d /d/ dz /dz/ /dʒ/
Continuant Voiceless f /f/ þ /θ/ s, sc(i) /s/ š, sč /ʃ/ h /x/
Voiced w /v/ ð /ð/ z /z/ ž /ʒ/ g(u) /ɣ/
Approximant/Liquid v /w/ l /l/ r /r/ g(i), j /j/

C, SC, and G before front vowel letters E and I, as well as semivowel letter J, are pronounced /ts/, /s/, and /j/, respectively. For example, sciencj is pronounced /si.ɛnts/, the word gia in pronounced /ja/, and the word burgj is pronounced /bu.ri/.

J after a consonant at the end of a word palatalizes said consonant, something that also applies to C and G, for example Francj is pronounced /frants/, but Franc is pronounced /fraŋk/.

X is pronounced /ks/.

Vowels Front Back
Close i, y /i/ u /u/
Close-Mid é, aí /e/ ó /o/
Open-Mid e, ai /ɛ/ o /ɔ/
Open a /a/

Mechyrdian also has diphthongs: AU, EI, OI, EU, and UO are pronounced /aʊ/, /aɪ/, /oɪ/, /əʊ/, and /ʊə/, respectively.

Grammar

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Mechyrdian is a synthetic language: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and articles are all inflected for grammatical meaning.

Nouns

Mechyrdian doesn't use grammatical gender; instead, nouns are inflected based on their dictionary (i.e. nominative singular) ending and what it ends in.

It also has grammatical cases:

Nouns Consonant Stem Velar Stem Palatal Consonant Stem Palatalized Velar Stem Vowel Stem
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom. -- -a -(c or g) -(c or g)a -j -ja -(c or g)j -(c or g)ia -- -n
Gen. -i -as -(c or g)ui -(c or g)as -i -jas -(c or g)i -(c or g)ias -s -ni
Dat. -e -aþ -(c or g)ue -(c or g)aþ -je -jaþ -(c or g)e -(c or g)iaþ -ne
Acc. -u -am -(c or g)u -(c or g)am -ju -jam -(c or g)iu -(c or g)iam -m -nu

The stems switch ending patterns in the plural; the plural consonant stem -i takes vowel stem endings, and the plural vowel stem -s takes consonant stem endings. However, nouns ending in palatalized consonants (consonant + J) are treated as vowel stems ending in -i, unless it is a -cj or -gj, in which case it is treated as consonant stems with a soft C or G. For example, the accusative form of Francj "France" is Franciu, while the accusative form of franc "Swiss franc" is francu; the genitive form of Francj is Franci, while the genitive form of franc is franqui.

Pronouns

Mechyrdian pronouns also don't use gender. First second, third person, singular and plural, no gender (that means no he, she, or it). If you need to distinguish between multiple people, use adjectives, e.g. és defórm "the ugly (lit. deformed) man/woman/thing", éj pieti "the faithful ones".

Pronouns First Person Second Person Third Person Reflexive
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative gia vi þu ju es ei --
Genitive mei nóstri þei vóstri éj éjom sei
Dative mihi nóbés þibi vóbés érim émus sibi
Accusative nós þé vós ém éns

Personal pronouns also take case stacking; the first case is declined as above, and following cases take the normal declensions.

Correlatives

There are other pronouns, determiners, and numerals too, which are mostly declined normally.

The correlatives hvar, hvas, þar, and þas can also take consonant stem case endings for case inflection.

Numerals

Mechyrdian numerals use base 10, however digits are grouped in fours, rather than threes. For example:

Construction

Numbers are constructed as follows:

Suffixes

Ordinals take the suffix -(e)rþ, while numerals of repetition take the suffix -(i)x, and numerals of multiplication take the suffix -(ó)bil.

Adjectives

Adjective declensions are very regular; comparative adjectives take the suffix -iór/jór, while superlative adjectives take the suffix -(i)ssim, and supergressive (defined as "increasingly adj") adjectives take the suffix -(e)rrum.

Verbs

Mechyrdian verbs use four tenses, three participles, three supines, and two moods.

The four tenses are:

This reduces to two in the subjunctive mood:

The three participles are:

The three supines are:

The two moods are indicative and subjunctive.

The verb forms are as follows:

Pres. Act. Part. Perf. Pass. Part. Fut. Act. Part. Sg. Imperative Pl. Imperative
-ns, -nti -t, -ti -tur, -turi -- -té
Nominal Supine Verbal Supine Adjectival Supine Actor Action
-tus -tum -tuþ -tór -ció
Indicative Singular Plural (vi, ju, éj)
1st (gia) 2nd (þu) 3rd (és)
Present -m -st -naš
Imperfect -dam -dast -daþ -dans
Aorist -vi -vist -viþ -vans
Future -som -sés -sé -sont
Subjunctive Singular Plural (vi, ju, éj)
1st (gia) 2nd (þu) 3rd (és)
Present -só -sost -soþ -sons
Past -varm -vés -vé -vant

All verb conjugations are regular, even bem "to be".

Prepositions

Mechyrdian prepositions modify the meaning of a noun with respect to a verb. They can also be prefixed to a verb, modifying the meaning of the verb itself, e.g. dé "around, about", þinkatj "to think", déþinkatj "to think about, ponder, consider". Prepositions can also be compounded to nouns, and the noun can be compounded with a case specifying the meaning of the preposition, to create an adjective.

Prepositions of motion towards tend to take the accusative, while those not relating to motion tend to take the dative. Some prepositions can take both cases, and the case determines the specific meaning of the preposition.

The list of important prepositions is:

Circu can also be used as a conjunction, where it multiplies two numbers.

For prepositions that are separated by a slash /, the first is used before words starting in a vowel, and the second is used for words starting in a consonant. E.g. v infernu "into hell", u celu "into heaven".

Direct and Indirect Interrogatives

Mechyrdian interrogatives are words used in Mechyrdian to ask questions. Colloquially known as HV-words, they are mostly listed above in the Pronouns section, with the exception of ču "if/whether". Ču is used for "yes/no" questions, e.g. Ču Mehurdiasu talcast? "Do you speak Mechyrdian?". For answers to ču-questions, the following words are used:

Naming customs

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Mechyrdian names come in 3-4 parts:

Hóminóm

The personal name is given to the child at birth. When the child reaches 16, the age of adulthood, he is given the choice to change his name with government records at any time, for a small fee.

Erbennóm

The patronymic/matronymic is derived from the father's (for boys) or mother's (for girls) personal name. Thus, if the father has Titó as a personal name, and the mother has Fausta as a personal name, the sons will have Titówič as their patronymic, and the daughters will have Faustówca as their matronymic. The suffix is -ówič for patronymics, and -ówca for matronymics, and they both replace any word-final vowel.

Familinóm

Familinómi are typically much more diverse than hóminómi. It designates a Mechyrdian citizen as a member of a famil. A famil, which is usually translated as "family" or "tribe", forms an extended Mechyrdian family, all of whom share the same familinóm.

Meronumen

The meronóm, or "earned name", is a part of the Mechyrdian name derived from some heroic or virtuous act that is attributed to the bearer, e.g. the former Chancellor of Mechyrdia Dracan Wladimirów, full name Dracan Arcanówič Wladimirów Fulcraíhi, for reigning during the Mechyrdian victory in the Fulkreyksk Cold War.