Tylan Language

The Tylan language (Tyl. Rheagda Tulasra) is an officially recognized language in the Empire of Mechyrdia, and the official language of the Tylan Republic.

Phonology

Back to Top

Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palato-Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Stop Voiceless p /p/ t /t/ (k) /c/ k /k/
Voiced b /b/ d /d/ (g) /ɟ/ g /ɡ/
Continuant Voiceless f, ff /f/ th /θ/ s-, ss, -s /s/ sh /ʃ/ hj, (ch), (-g) /ç/ ch, -g /x/ h /h/
Voiced fv, v /v/ (/w/) dh /ð/ -s- /z/ j /j/
Liquid Voiceless ll, lh, hl /ɬ/ rr, rh, hr /r̥/
Voiced l /l/ r /ɾ/ (/ɹ/)

K, G, and H before /j/, are palatalized into /c/, /ɟ/, and /ç/, respectively.

Tylan has word-final consonant devoicing, meaning that voiced consonants in voiced-voiceless pairs are replaced with their voiceless counterparts in word-final position. /ɾ/ and /l/ are exceptions, they are not replaced with /r̥/ or /ɬ/. /g/ is replaced with /x/ when after back vowels, and /ç/ when after front vowels.

R /ɾ/ and FV/V /v/ have the allophones /ɹ/ and /w/, respectively, when next to another consonant sound.

Vowels Front Unrounded Front Rounded Center / Back
Close i /i/ u /y/ ou /u/
Mid e /e/ eu /ø/ o /o/
Open a /a/

There are 7 vowel phonemes; four front, three back, as well as 8 diphthong phonemes:

Diphthongs From Front From Center From Back
To Close ei /ei/ au /au/ ui /ui/
To Mid eo /eo/ ae /ae/ oe /oe/
To Open ea /ea/ oa /oa/

The hiatus

The apostrophe ' is only used to split digraphs and diphthongs. For example:

It is not used in the actual Tylan alphabet for this purpose; rather, ' is used as a blank consonant letter to start words in writing that are spoken starting with a vowel, e.g. the transliterated odivan "to see" is 'odivaE in the original writing.

Stress accent

Tylan has a stress accent; the location of the stressed syllable in a word is determined by the following:

Some examples of these rules include:

Grammar

Back to Top

Tylan is a fusional language; nouns, verbs, adjectives, and pronouns use various endings to inflect meaning.

Nouns

Tylan has three noun classes: terrestrial, ethereal, and spiritual. These noun classes determine the endings that adjectives use for the nouns that they describe.

Tylan also has three cases:

Tylan has two numbers: singular and plural.

Vowel Declensions O-stem E-stem terrestrial / ethereal E-stem spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -ot -os -et -es -eth -eta
Dative -oa -otas -ea -etas -ea -etas
Genitive -o -otan -e -etan -e -etan
Vowel Declensions A-stem terrestrial A-stem ethereal A-stem spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -ar -as -a -as -am -a
Dative -ae -amas -ae -amas -ae -amas
Genitive -as -an -as -an -as -an
Vowel Declensions U-stem I-stem terrestrial / ethereal I-stem spiritual
Terr/Eth Sg. Spiritual Sg. Plural Singular Plural Singular
Nom-Acc -ur -u -ura -ir -unir -i
Dative -uri -unar -uni -inar -uni
Genitive -us -uja -is -ira -is
Consonant Declensions N-stem* terrestrial / ethereal N-stem* spiritual L-stem
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -- -nes
(Lat.) -nnes
-- -na
(Lat.) -nna
-l -la
Dative -ni
(Lat.) -nni
-nem
(Lat.) -nnem
-ni
(Lat.) -nni
-nem
(Lat.) -nnem
-- -lis
Genitive -nes
(Lat.) -nnes
-n
(Lat.) -nnan
-nes
(Lat.) -nnes
-n
(Lat.) -nnan
-l -llan
Consonant Declensions T-stem* terrestrial / ethereal T-stem* spiritual R-stem
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -s -tes
(Lat.) -ttes
-- -ta
(Lat.) -tta
-r -ris
Dative -ti
(Lat.) -tti
-tem
(Lat.) -ttem
-ti
(Lat.) -tti
-tem
(Lat.) -ttem
-ri -rem
Genitive -tes
(Lat.) -ttes
-ten
(Lat.) -tten
-tes
(Lat.) -ttes
-ten
(Lat.) -tten
-res -ran
Consonant Declensions G-stem terrestrial G-stem ethereal G-stem spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc -ig -is -ag -ae -og -oa
Dative -i -im -a -am -o -om
Genitive -is -in -aes -aen -os -on

*In Latinate names borrowed into Tylan, such as Varo, Varonnes "Varro" (N-stem) or Anderas, Anderattes "Andrew" (T-stem), the stem consonant may be doubled as indicated in the table.

Tylan has many declensions: O-stem, E-stem, A-stem, U-stem, and I-stem are the vowel declensions; nasal-stem, L-stem, T-stem, R-stem, and G-stem are the consonant declensions.

Nouns may use any declension; adjectives may use any declension other than U-stem or I-stem. A-stem and G-stem adjectives change forms for all three classes, E-stem, nasal-stem, and T-stem adjectives change forms between terrestrial/ethereal and spiritual, and O-stem, L-stem, and R-stem adjectives are invariant for noun class.

Articles

Tylan has one type of article: the definite article, used for marking definiteness on nouns. Unlike noun declensions, the definite article does distinguish the nominative and accusative cases.

Definite article Terrestrial Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative se, s- sae sot, so- soa sat sot
Accusative seg saeg sok sak sat sot
Dative ser sem sor som ser sem
Genitive ses sen sos son ses sen

The terrestrial and ethereal singular nominative articles undergo contraction; the terrestrial se contracts when in front of a word beginning in a vowel, a plosive, or H, the ethereal sot contracts when in front of a word beginning in a plosive. For example:

The spiritual plural nominative article sot does not do this. Also, hyphens are used instead of apostrophes in Tylan contracted words.

Pronouns and Correlatives

Personal Pronouns First-person Second-person Reflexive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative sig mus pae aff --
Accusative sida mutha paura alrea doaha
Dative sirga misa paga auva dochi
Genitive seol mor pael aur doal
Possessive Adjective seolar, -a, -am moret, -eth paelar, -a, -am auret, -eth doalar, -a, -am

The possessive forms of personal pronouns are inflected as adjectives: seolar, paelar, and doalar are A-stem adjectives, while moret and auret are E-stem.

The reflexive pronoun is used to refer back to the subject of a sentence, e.g. Sig vrelesset dochi throna paela "I gave your money to myself."

Third-Person Pronouns Terrestrial Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative var vares vra vares vram vra
Accusative vara vrasa vraha vrasa vram vra
Dative verae vram vrae vram verae vram
Genitive vares vran vras vran vares vran

Third-person pronouns have standard forms for their genitive cases, not adjectival forms like in the first-person or second-person.

Proximal Pronouns "this of mine" Terrestrial / Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc prot proset proat proata
Dative prota prosat prota prosat
Genitive proa prontat proa prontat
Medial Pronouns "that of yours" Terrestrial / Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc kor kores kori korja
Dative korei koremas korei koremas
Genitive kores koren kores koren
Distal Pronouns "that over there" Terrestrial / Ethereal Spiritual
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nom-Acc ralet raltes raltem raltea
Dative ralta raltat ralta raltat
Genitive raltas raltam raltas raltam

Deictic pronouns don't distinguish between the Nominative or Accusative.

Interrogative pronouns Terrestrial / Ethereal "Who" Spiritual "What"
Nominative geadh geva
Accusative gedhan
Dative gerae
Genitive geres

Interrogative pronouns don't distinguish number.

Tylan correlatives are the various interrogative, demonstrative, and universal forms of various concepts.

Correlatives Interrogative / Relative
(gea-)
Demonstrative
(vrea-)
Demonstrative suffix form
Used with prefixes pro- (proximal), kor- (medial) or ral- (distal)
Universal
(moa-)
Negative
(dhal-)
Basic
(nominal declension)
geadh, geva
"what?"
vreadh, vreva
"this/that"
(use proximal / medial / distal pronouns) modhar, modha, modham
"everyone, everything"
dhalig, dhalag, dhalog
"nothing, no one"
Number
(-thaul)
geathaul
"how many...?"
vreathaul
"this/that many..."
vreth moathaul
"all of the..."
dhallaul
"none of the..."
Type
(-sal)
geasal
"what kind of...?"
vreasal
"this/that kind of..."
vres moasal
"all kinds of..."
dhalsal
"no kind of..."
Location
(-kjol)
geakjol (short form gjak)
"where?"
vreakjol (short form vreak)
"here/there"
vrek moakjol
"everywhere"
dhalkjol
"nowhere"
Purpose
(singular dative spiritual-class)
gerae
"why? for what cause?"
verae
"because/for the sake of..."
verae modhae
"inevitably" (lit. "because of anything")
dhalo
"arbitrarily" (lit. "because of nothing")
Manner
(-vahae)
geavahae (short form gjav)
"how?"
vreahae (short form vreav)
"by..."
vria moavahae
"by doing everything necessary" (lit. "by all means")
dhalvahae
"by doing nothing/it just happened" (lit. "by no means")
Time
(-nauho)
geanauho (short form gjan)
"when?"
vreanauho (short form vrean)
"then"
vren
"now/then"
moanauho
"always"
dhalnouho
"never"
Repetition
(-noar)
geanoar
"how many times?"
vreanoar
"this/that many times"
vreno monar
"forever" (lit. "repeated infinitely")
dhalnor
"don't" (lit. "repeated not at all")

Some correlative meanings may seem inconsistent in translation, however they still make sense from a Tylan perspective.

The demonstrative suffix forms are used with the prefixes pro- for proximal demonstratives and ral- for distal demonstratives.

Adjectival degrees

Tylan has four degrees of adjectives:

Verbs

Verbs have two conjugation patterns: front-stem and back-stem.

There are six tenses:

These six tenses are put into three groups of terrestrial, ethereal, and spiritual; these groups have a past-like tense and a non-past tense.

Tenses Terrestrial Ethereal Spiritual
Non-past Present Future Gnomic
Past-like Imperfect Perfect Aorist

There are also two moods:

There are also some participles and infinitives.

Verbs also consider the number of the subject: singular subjects take one form, plural subjects take another.

Front-stem verb conjugation
Indicative Singular subject Plural subject
Gnomic -e -el
Present -et -eth
Imperfect (F) -tet (F) -tel
Aorist (F) -esset (F) -ennet
Perfect (F) -vet (F) -vel
Future -ese -essen
Subjunctive Singular subject Plural subject
Non-past -enet -enish
Past-like (F) -et (F) -ennis
Non-finite forms Active Passive
Participle -es, -etes -et, -et, -eth (with prefix)
Infinitive -en -enni

(F) indicates vowel fronting in the vowel before the stem ending:

Vowel Fronted vowel
a e
o eu
ou u

For example, the verb vralen "to give" has a fronted stem vrel-, giving forms such as vreltet (imperfect singular) or vrelvel (perfect plural).

Vowels not listed above are not affected by vowel fronting.

Back-stem verbs are conjugated as follows:

Back-stem verb conjugation
Indicative Singular subject Plural subject
Gnomic -a -al
Present -at -ath
Imperfect (F) -tat (F) -tal
Aorist (F) -asset (F) -annet
Perfect (F) -vat (F) -val
Future -aso -assan
Subjunctive Singular subject Plural subject
Non-past -anot -anosh
Past-like (F) -at (F) -annos
Non-finite forms Active Passive
Participle -as, -ates -ot, -o (with prefix)
Infinitive -an -anno

Back-stem verbs have a different vowel stem than front-stem verbs, but are otherwide identical. Again, (F) indicates vowel fronting.

Formation of passive participles

Tylan passive participles take either an E-stem declension form (for front-stem verbs) or an O-stem declension form (for back-stem verbs), but they also take a prefix. That prefix depends on the meaning of the verb:

Formation of imperatives

In archaic speech, the subjunctive forms of verbs are also used as the imperative, however in modern speech, the infinitive is used as the imperative.

Irregular verbs

Tylan has three irregular verbs: vesso "to be" (copula), kaun "to make" and tvashon "to believe".

vesso conjugation
Indicative Singular subject Plural subject
Gnomic (null verb) (null verb)
Present (null verb) (null verb)
Imperfect vjat vjal
Aorist vjas vjan
Perfect vivat vival
Future kres kren
Subjunctive Singular subject Plural subject
Non-past pranat pranesh
Past-like pret pren
Non-finite forms Active
Participle vet, vet, veth
Infinitive vesso

Unlike vesso, kaun does have passive forms.

kaun conjugation
Indicative Singular subject Plural subject
Gnomic kau kaul
Present kaut kauth
Imperfect koetat koetal
Aorist koessit koennit
Perfect koevat koeval
Future kauso kaussan
Subjunctive Singular subject Plural subject
Non-past kaunot kaunesh
Past-like koet koennis
Non-finite forms Active Passive
Participle kaus, kautes kavot, kavo
Infinitive kaun kaunno

The verb tvashon has no past tense forms or passive participle.

tvashon conjugation
Indicative Singular subject Plural subject
Gnomic tvasho tvashol
Present tvashot tvashoth
Future tvashosou tvashossan
Subjunctive Singular subject Plural subject
Non-past tvashout tvashonnesh
Non-finite forms Active Passive
Participle tvashos, tvasotes tvashot, tvasho
Infinitive tvashon tvashonna

Verb clitics

Syntax

Tylan is an SVO language; the subject usually comes first, then the verb, then the object. However, the word order can be different using article or pronoun cases. It's also a V2 language; the verb typically comes second in the sentence. However again, that isn't always the case; for instance, yes/no questions use V1 word order. Adjectives can come either before or after the noun, and always agree with the noun in class, case, and number.

Partitive nominative and accusative

To express the concept of "some of" in Tylan, the partitive is used: prepending a definite article in the genitive case to a noun in the nominative-accusative case. For example:

Likewise, this is done with the accusative case as well.

The noun itself stays nominative-accusative; it's merely the article that takes the plural genitive.

Honorific vocative

While Tylan does not have T-V distinction in pronouns, it does have T-V distinction in vocative nouns. Tylan does not have a proper vocative case distinction, but when nouns, such as names or titles, are used in a vocative sense, the proper usage is to use the singular number in a familiar or informal context, and the plural number in a formal context. For example:

This is also used with titles used in a vocative context:

With vot and a family name, the family name takes the plural, while vot remains in the nominative-accusative singular.

Passive voice

Tylan does not have a passive voice; instead, it has a construct for reversing word order. By putting the prefix dha- onto the verb, Nom-Acc case nouns become accusative before the verb, and nominative after.

Yes/no questions

Tylan uses V1 word order for yes/no questions, contrasting with traditional V2 word order.

For example:

For answers to these questions, the modal verb ejan is used:

Subordinate clauses

Clause type Parts of clause
Purpose clause initial argument of subordinate clause pi subordinate verb following arguments of subordinate clause
Indirect statement subject of subordinate clause in accusative case infinitive form of verb following arguments of subordinate clause
Indirect question main clause question word subordinate clause with verb in subjunctive form
Result clause main clause with demonstrative correlative initial argument of subordinate clause puni subordinate verb following arguments of subordinate clause
Indirect command same as purpose clause, except the independent clause uses a command verb
Temporal clause independent clause vtach initial argument of subordinate clause pis subordinate verb following arguments of subordinate clause

Pi (nom-acc), puni (dative), or pis (genitive) with a verb is never split.

Purpose and result clauses take an indicative verb if the purpose or result was accomplished (i.e. realis), or the subjunctive if it either failed or was not yet accomplished (i.e. irrealis).

More on V2 word order

The verb usually comes second in the clause that it's in. This applies to both independent clauses and dependent clauses.

Examples:

Relative clauses

Nouns in a relative clause take a relative clause marker suffix, and the verb takes a relativizer suffix -lev. The suffix that the noun takes depends on its case in the relative clause.

Case in relative clause Noun suffix
Nominative -re
Accusative -ren
Dative -reha
Genitive -reth

For example:

In the case of a genitive noun that modifies another noun, the noun takes the suffix -lev. For example:

Normal word order still applies in relative clauses, thus it is still "Helar Dje srengast vaelig terulev", with the modified noun after the verb.

Numerals

Tylan numerals use simple Arabic numerals, the same as used by Mechyrdia, except in base 12, with Latin letters X and Y representing the digits for 10 and 11. For example, the base-10 number 170110 would be represented in Tylan as Y99. Similarly, the number 241010. in Tylan numerals. would be rendered as 148X.

Number words

Tylan number words are listed here:

Number Cardinal word Ordinal word
0 teijar, teija, teijam teilig, teilag, teilog
1 eijar, eija, eijam eilig, eilag, eilog
2 vpouras, vpouras, vpoura vpursar, vpursa, vpursam
3 mrei (indeclinable) mreilo (gen. mreilones)
4 tvorech (indeclinable) tvorchet, tvorchet, tvorcheth
5 vteirek (indeclinable) vtirket, vtirket, vtirketh
6 ksasek (indeclinable) ksashot (gen. ksasho)
7 kteren (indeclinable) kternet, kternet, kterneth
8 augor (indeclinable) augret, augret, augreth
9 skaches (indeclinable) skagsot (gen. skagso)
10 kved (indeclinable) kveset, kveset, kveseth
11 vokre (indeclinable) vokret, vokret, vokreth

These words are suffixed with the following multipliers for different digit places, and are added together when in sequence:

Multiplier Mult. value Word
120 1 (no suffix)
121 12 -nam
122 144 -ja
123 1,728 -vad
124 20,736 -korg
125 248,832 -tirk
126 2,985,984 -leo
127 35,831,808 -leo nam
128 429,981,696 -leo ja
129 5,159,780,352 -lem
1210 61,917,364,224 -lem nam
1211 743,008,370,688 -lem ja
1212 8,916,100,448,256‬ -ler

For example, the number 16,38310 is rendered in base 12 as 9,59312, which becomes skachs-vad vtirk-ja skachs-nam mrei. The numbers that are added together must all agree with the noun they describe in gender, number, and case. However, this only occurs with the declinable numbers 0, 1, and 2.

The ordinal number 1610-th is rendered in base 12 as 1412-th, which becomes eilig-nam tvorchet in the terrestrial class, eilag-nam tvorchet in the ethereal class, and eilog-nam tvorcheth in the spiritual class. Again, all of the added numbers must all agree with the noun they describe in gender, number, and case. Unlike the cardinal numbers, however, all of the ordinal numbers have declensions, making it important for learners of Tylan to pay attention to their numbers.

Common speech

Back to Top

The common speech (Tyl. vkagot skatha, lit. "low speech") of Tylan, in recent years, has been described by linguists as a step backwards in Tylan's linguistic evolution, returning to old forms, meanings, and sounds from the language's history. This is mostly for political reasons: many young Tylans wish to rebel against the progressive Tylan Republic and human-dominated Empire of Mechyrdia by adopting archaic manners of speaking.

Vkagot skatha contrasts with Rheagdashtam "language-ness", which refers to what most older Tylans, as well as the Tylan republican government, consider to be "proper" Tylan.

The modern word kelmarin is decomposed into its archaic components kelet "previous" and mari "day", and put into the dative case to construct a dative absolute, a feature of Tylan grammar that hasn't been used for hundreds of years. The loadword storamal "shopping center" is replaced with the native Tylan word erkosha "workhouse", which is put into the old accusative case that no longer exists. Finally, the whole sentence is in topic-focus word order, with the topic being what happened yesterday, and the focus being the mall; Rheagdashtam uses V2 word order, with the adverb kelmarin being the first element of the sentence.

Naming customs

Back to Top

Tylan naming customs are similar to Mechyrdian customs; a given name, followed by a matronymic, and ending with a family/house name and patron god. They differ in that Mechyrdian uses patronymics for sons, and uses titles of accomplishment instead of a patron god's name.

Given name

The Tylan given names are mostly inherited from the other, extinct languages that used to exist on Tyla, before the Lihann Empire wiped them out.

Common given names

Male

Female

Matronymic

The Tylan matronymic is derived from the genitive form of the mother's given name, followed by a hyphen, and the word Nensar "son" or Nahra "daughter".

Family/house name

The Tylan house name is the terrestrial (for men) or ethereal (for women) form of the house name. e.g. the house name Shtam Kaesarsteijam becomes Kaesarsteijar/Kaesarsteija as a house name.

Order name

Members of Tylan religious orders (Tyl. aultanes) take the genitive form of their order's name, followed by the word aultasra (as only women can join religious orders). This replaces the family name.

Patron god name

Upon a Tylan's 13th birthday, they enter a ceremony known as the Tachsuvan (Readying), where the Tylan chooses a god from the Pantheon as their patron. Back in the days of the Theocracy, this would also lock them into a certain education path and career, however the Tylan Republic is more flexible. The god's name is put into the genitive form, and hyphenated with the word Rho'et (follower).

Members of religious orders have their patron god name replaced with Vargetan-Rho'et, or "follower of the gods", as they serve the entire pantheon, not one specific god.

Example names

Some example names (and their broken-down forms) are:

Alphabet

Back to Top

The Tylan language has its own alphabet; this website uses the Revolutionary transliteration, however the alphabet can be sampled below:

Latin Alphabet:

Tylan Alphabet:

Romanization

The romanization for the Tylan language that this website uses was created by the All-Tylan Revolutionary Committee, in an attempt to emulate the humans to the galactic west. However, it was abandoned by the Mechyrdians, who restored the old alphabet to preserve some of Tyla's cultural heritage.

Tylamoticons

Tylamoticons (Tyl. Tulamotiko, plural Tulamotikones) are emoticons made using the Tylan alphabet. Typically using the Tylan letters ' and h along with vowel diacritics, Tylamoticons have the potential to be very expressive. Some examples of Tylamoticons are: