Kishari Language

The Kishari language (Ksh. Kyşary lanur /kɯˈʃa.rɯ ˈla.nur/) is a minority language spoken within the periphery of former Fulkreykk. It is an agglutinative language, prepending or appending affixes to words to apply grammatical meanings.

Kishari originated on the world Kishas (Ksh. Kyşas), which is now within Lyudareyksk space. During the early expansion into space of the First Fulkreyksk Authoritariat, the humans of Kishas were also colonizing planets outside their own star system. Upon first contact, the Kishari people voluntarily chose to join Fulkreykk, giving them a more comfortable position within the Authoritariat compared to those who were conquered by the Thedish military.

A bilingual sign in both Thedish and Kishari, with text that translates to "Welcome to Jorgengrad: Birthplace of Praethoris Khorr"

Phonology

Consonants Labial Dental Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng, n(k), n(h) /ŋ/ n(q) /ɴ/
Stops Voiceless p /p/ t /t/ ç /tʃ/ k /k/ q /q/
Voiced b /b/ d /d/ c /dʒ/ g /ɡ/
Fricatives Voiceless s /s/ ş /ʃ/ h /x ~ χ/
Trill r /r/
Approximants l /l/ j /j/ w /w/

Kishari consonants are somewhat standard for a galactic language, if a bit peculiar for lacking the labiodental fricatives /f/ and /v/, as well as having the voiceless uvular plosive /q/.

Vowels Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
High i /i/ ü /y/ y /ɯ/ u /u/
Mid e /e/ ö /ø/ o /o/
Open a /ɑ/

Kishari has vowel harmony: vowels in affixes must agree with the vowels in the root word:

Front Back
e a
i y
ö o
ü u

There are four pairs of corresponding front/back vowels, and no neutral vowels.

Phonotactics

Kishari has somewhat-limiting (C)V(C)(C) phonotactics - syllables must contain a vowel, but may start with one optional consonant, and may end with up to two consonants.

Writing system

This article uses the scientific transliteration of Kishari. Its native writing system can be viewed here:

Latin Alphabet:

Kishari Alphabet:

Grammar

Kishari is an agglutinative SVO language with restricted word order. Nouns' case inflections do not distinguish between nominative and accusative; rather, similarly to Tylan, nominative noun phrases appear before the verb, and accusative noun phrases appear after it. Nominals in Kishari do not have any concept of gender or noun classes, nor are they ever compounded.

Nouns and adjectives

Kishari nouns are inflected for number, possessor, and case:

Suffix After voiceless consonants After voiced consonants After nasal consonants After vowels
Number
Plural -ör, -or -lör, -lor -nör, -nor -lör, -lor
Possessive
1st-person singular -im, -ym -im, -ym -im, -ym -m, -m
2nd-person singular -is, -ys -is, -ys -is, -ys -s, -s
3rd-person singular -it, -yt -it, -yt -it, -yt -t, -t
1st-person plural -imner, -ymnar -imner, -ymnar -imner, -ymnar -mner, -mnar
2nd-person plural -işqer, -yşqar -işqer, -yşqar -işqer, -yşqar -şqer, -şqar
3rd-person plural -itter, -yttar -itter, -yttar -itter, -yttar -tter, -ttar
Case
Nominative/Accusative -
Locative -şi, -şy -işi, -yşy -işi, -yşy -şi, -şy
Instrumental -töş, -toş -döş, -doş -nöş, -noş -töş, -toş
Genitive/Possessor -ek, -ak -ek, -ak -nek, -nak -k, -k
Dative/Benefactive -hiq, -hyq -iq, -yq -hiq, -hyq -hiq, -hyq
Ablative -tön, -ton -dön, -don -nön, -non -ndön, -ndon

These cases are used to inflect the following meanings:

Similarly to Mechyrdian, case suffixes can be stacked onto each other, for example, the word Düsekşi "in the temple of Düs" is parsed as Düs "Düs" + -ek genitive case "of" + -şi locative case "in", with Düsek being understood to mean "(the temple) of Düs". As an example of a plural suffix placed onto a case suffix, the word Tülendönnör "Tylans" is parsed as Tüle "Tyla" + -ndön ablative case "from" + -nör plural "-s".

Adjectives

Adjectives that are used to describe nouns are uninflected, while adjectives that are substantiated (used as nouns) are inflected as a noun would be. For this reason, adjectives always appear immediately after the noun that they modify, never anywhere else. If an adjective appears after a verb, it is used as an adverb.

Adjectives can be positive, superior comparative, equative comparative, or superlative:

Suffix After voiceless consonants After voiced consonants After nasal consonants After vowels
Positive -
Superior comparative -er, -ar -er, -ar -er, -ar -jer, -jar
Equative comparative -se, -sa -re, -ra -se, -sa -se, -sa
Superlative -im, -ym -im, -ym -mim, -mym -sim, -sym

Pronoun declensions

Pronouns take only case inflections, and have irregular inflections for number.

Case Singular Plural Reflexive
I thou he, she, it we you (all) they
Nom/Acc mi ti li neş weş uly şy
Locative mişi tişi lişi neşi weşi ulyşy şyşy
Instrumental mitöş titöş litöş neştöş weştöş ulytoş şytoş
Genitive
(use possessive suffixes on the possessed noun instead)
Dative mihiq tihiq lihiq neşhiq weşhiq ulyhyq şyhyq
Ablative mindön tindön lindön neştön weştön ulyndon şyndon

Demonstrative pronouns bol "this" and şula "that", as well as the interrogative pronoun nerşem "who/what", are declined like normal nouns when they are used on their own.

Verbs

Verbs in Kishari take inflecting affixes for tense/aspect, as well as various non-finite forms.

Tense/aspect suffixes

Kishari has an unorthodox approach to tense/aspect affixes. Rather than having one set of affixes for tense (past, present, and future) and one set for aspect (e.g. continuous, perfect, prospective), Kishari has prefixes for when the action starts and suffixes for when it ends. The tense/aspect meaning of each combination is as follows:

Temporal affixes End time
Past Present Future
Start time Past Pluperfect Imperfect Gnomic
Present Conditional past Present perfective Present
Future Conditional present Conditional future Future

Temporal prefixes are listed below:

Start time Before consonant Before vowel
Past eke- / aka- ek- / ak-
Present er- / ar- er- / ar-
Future işe- / yşa- iş- / yş-

Temporal suffixes are listed here:

End time After voiceless consonants After voiced consonants After nasal consonants After vowels
Past -iq / -yq -iq / -yq -iq / -yq -q / -q
Present -eç / -aç -eç / -aç -neç / -naç -neç / -naç
Future -ir / -yr -etir / -atyr -nir / -nyr -tir / -tyr
Uses of conditional tenses

Conditional tenses are used in conditional clauses; non-conditional tenses may not be used in conditional clauses. In fact, whether a sentence is conditional or not is determined by its use of a conditional tense. For example:

Conditional statements always put the condition clause pastwards in tense of the result clause, so statements can have a past condition and present result, a past condition and future result, or a present condition and future result, but the result can never be at the same time as, or earlier than, the condition.

Non-finite forms

Kishari has two types of participle, two types of infinitive, and one imperative:

Non-finite form After voiceless consonants After voiced consonants After nasal consonants After vowels
Active infinitive -em / -am -em / -am -nem / -nam -nem / -nam
Passive infinitive -emiş / -amyş -emiş / -amyş -nemiş / -namyş -nemiş / -namyş
Active participle -eken / -akan -eken / -akan -eken / -akan -ken / -kan
Passive participle -ine / -yna -ine / -yna -ne / -na -kine / -kyna

Participles are used as adjectives, while infinitives (sometimes called gerunds) are used as nouns.

Imperative forms of verbs are conjugated with a prefix:

Imperative Before consonant Before vowel
To singular je- / ja- jek- / jak-
To plural pe- / pa- per- / par-

The prefix varies based on whether the imperative is directed at a singular person or at a plural group.

Copula

Linking two nouns is usually as simple as placing two noun phrases adjacent to one another:

Sometimes, however, tense and aspect need to be inflected for, especially in conditional sentences. In order to accomplish this, tense/aspect prefixes are placed on the second noun in the linking construct:

Here, asqarlor "warriors" uses the conditional past conjugation ar- -yq, indicating that it is the complement of another noun in a linking construct.

Non-inflecting affixes

Kishari also has what are called "non-inflecting affixes", that form new words from existing words without applying any grammatical meaning. These affixes are categorized in two ways: the type of word they apply to, and the type of word they form.

Denominal affixes are applied to nouns, deverbal to verbs, and deadjectival to adjectives. Noun-forming affixes form nouns, verb-forming verbs, adjective-forming adjectives, and adverb-forming adverbs.

Non-inflecting prefixes are placed after inflecting prefixes, while non-inflecting suffixes are placed before inflecting suffixes; of course, exceptions exist.

Affix Applied to Forms Meaning
-bip / -byp Deverbal Verb-forming

Forms verbs that express a fear felt by the verb's subject.

The one fearing the action takes the nominative position, the feared agent takes the accusative position, and the patient of the feared action takes the dative case.

-cen / -can Deverbal Noun-forming Forms nouns with a sense of "tool used for (root verb)ing".
-çec / -çac Deverbal Verb-forming

Forms volitive verbs that express the desires/wishes of the verb's subject.

Like with the fearing suffix, the one desiring the action takes the nominative position, the desired agent takes the accusative position, and the patient of the desired action takes the dative case.

-ceq / -caq (after vowels and voiced consonants)

-çeq / -çaq (after voiceless consonants)

Denominal Noun-forming Pejorative suffix.
-heş / -haş Denominal, deverbal, deadjectival Noun-forming, verb-forming, adjective-forming (respectively) Augmentative suffix when used with nouns, frequentative when used with verbs, intensifier when used with adjectives.
-höl / -hol Denominal Noun-forming Dubitative suffix, forms nouns with a connotation of "so-called (root noun)".
-leh / -lah Deverbal Verb-forming Forms a verb indicating ability, with the sense of "to be able to (root verb)".

-löj / -loj (after vowels)

-öj / -oj (after consonants)

Denominal Noun-forming Endearment suffix.
-lü / -lu Deverbal Verb-forming Forms an intransitive verb meaning "to be (root verb)ed" from a transitive verb. The agent of the action may be present; if so, the agent noun takes the ablative case.
-mi / -my Denominal Noun-forming

Forms collective nouns of inanimate objects.

When applied to nouns referring to people, forms collective nouns with a connotation of "disorganized masses" or "loose conglomerate".

-meh / -mah Deverbal Verb-forming

Forms causative verbs.

Like with the fearing and volitive suffixes, the cause of the action takes the nominative position, the caused agent takes the accusative position, and the patient of the caused action takes the dative case.

-nir / -nyr Deverbal Verb-forming

Forms honorific verbs.

Unlike the fearing, volitive, and causative suffixes, the verb takes its normal (un-suffixed) arguments, while the noun that is honored by the action takes the dative/benefactive case and is placed at the initial position in the sentence.

-nnüs / -nnus (after vowels)

-nüs / -nus (after consonants)

Deverbal Noun-forming, adjective-forming Forms passive-optative nouns and adjectives with a sense of "must be (root verb)ed".
-piş / -pyş Denominal Noun-forming Forms nouns referring to the smallest possible part of the suffixed noun.
-qöm / -qom Denominal Noun-forming Diminutive suffix.
-set / -sat Denominal, deverbal Noun-forming Forms person nouns referring to the leader of the suffixed noun or verb.
-şem / -şam Denominal, deverbal, deadjectival Noun-forming Forms place nouns characterized by the root.
-wil / -wyl Denominal, deverbal, deadjectival Noun-forming, adjective-forming Forms nouns and adjectives that refer to practitioners of the root.

Comments

Log in to comment

This page has been visited 2 times by 2 unique visitors, most recently at

Click to close full size