Thedish Language

The Thedish language (Thd. Theodisc Rasda /ˈθɛː.ðiʃ ˈraz.ða/), also known as the Fulkreyksk language (Thd. Fulkreyksk Rasda /ˈfulk.reːksk ˈraz.ða/), is the official language of the Isarnareyksk Federation. It was constructed by the Committee for a Unified Language (Thd. Kommissariat vur anemm Fareynihtau Rasdae), which was specially organized by the Thedish Assembly of the First Fulkreyksk Authoritariat for the purpose of creating a one-world language.

Phonology

Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ n(g, k) /ŋ/
Stop p /p/ b /b/ t /t/ d /d ~ ð/ z /ts ~ dz/ tsc, tsch, tsh /tʃ/ dj /dʒ/ c, k, q /k/ g /ɡ ~ ɣ/ /ʔ/
Fricative f, ph /f/ v /v ~ w/ th /θ/ s /s ~ z/ sc, sch, sh, s(p), s(t) /ʃ/ j /ʒ/ ch, gh, hh, kh, qh /x/ h /h/
Approximant hv /ʍ/ l /l/ y /j ~ ʲ/
Rhotic r /r/

In general, Thedish consonants are devoiced at the ends of words. Voiced consonants that alternate between stops and fricatives are devoiced to voiceless fricatives, such as word-final d becoming /θ/ and word-final g becoming /x/. Voiced stops that are never pronounced as fricatives are devoiced to voiceless stops, such as word-final b becoming /p/ and word-final dj becoming /tʃ/. The voiced fricative j /ʒ/ is devoiced to /ʃ/, and the voiced consonant v, which alternates between /v/ and /w/, is devoiced to /f/.

An s in the onset of a syllable before a p or t is pronounced /ʃ/, not /s/ or /z/. Intervocalic s is pronounced /z/; when doubled as ss, it is pronounced /s/.

A y after a consonant and before a vowel palatalizes the preceding consonant, e.g. the word styeorna "star" is pronounced /stʲɛːrna/.

The consonant sound /k/ can be written arbitrarily as either c, k, or q, owing to the various spelling schemes of Theden's pre-Fulkreykk natural languages. Similarly, the sound /x/ can be spelled ch, gh, hh, kh, or qh.

The letter x is always pronounced /ks/, never as /ɡz/.

Some consonants can be written as being doubled in the coda position. This does not have any effect on pronunciation, merely being done to mark historical palatalization of word-final consonants. Examples are the final kk in Fulkreykk, the rr in forarr "leader", and the dd in stadd "city, town".

Vowels Front Center Back
Close i /i/ ie, iy /iː/ y /ɨ/ yy /ɨː/ u /u/ ou, ue, ui /uː/
Close-Mid ei, eu, ey /eː/ au, oi /oː/
Open-Mid e /ɛ/ ai, ay, eo /ɛː/ o /ɔ/ ao, oe /ɔː/
Open a /a/ aa, ae /aː/

Thedish vowel spelling is unintuitive, owing to its origin as a constructed interlanguage of every major natural language on Theden. Thedish distinguishes vowel length by spelling long and short vowels differently. The letter y, which is pronounced as the palatal approximant /j/ when used as a consonant, can also be pronounced as a close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/.

Thedish is lacking in diphthongs; to avoid being difficult to pronounce for some constituent subject peoples of Fulkreykk, the Unified Language Committee decided not to use diphthongs when constructing Thedish, opting instead for simple vowel sounds. This official explanation is contradicted by the complex nature of Thedish vowels, with a short-long distinction that is disambiguated with up to several different spellings per vowel.

In later Thedish, when it becomes necessary to mark diphthongs from loanwords in writing, the second vowel is marked with a diaeresis, e.g. the Tylan name "Keisarelka" is written in Thedish as Keïsarelka and pronounced /kɛɪ̯.za.rɛl.ka/. This only occurs with the Thedish writing system that uses the Latin alphabet, sanctioned by the Second Fulkreyksk Authoritariat; the Thedish alphabet itself uses an apostrophe between vowels that form a diphthong, e.g. Ke'isarelka.

Writing system

The Thedish writing system was designed by the Committee for a Unified Language by taking letters from the various pre-Fulkreyksk languages' writing systems. It has 25 letters, in both majuscule and miniscule forms, and a base-10 counting stystem.

Latin Alphabet:

Thedish Alphabet:

Names of the letters

The names of the letters of the Thedish alphabet, in Thedish order, are as follows: Alef Bit Cadet Gamil Dalet Essil Vav Zet Hit Ivot Jenna Kaf Lamed Mem Nun Xen Oyin Pit Qvaf Rhesh Satha Tav Ussil Yot Fit.

Morphology

Thedish has a fusional inflectional morphology; nouns, verbs, and adjectives are inflected to show various grammatical properties.

Nominals

Nominal declensions use five cases: nominative, instrumental, genitive, dative, and accusative; two numbers: singular and plural; and two genders: common and neuter. The typical uses of each noun case can be summarized as:

Noun declensions

Thedish uses four noun declensions:

First declension

Common nouns ending in -a

First declension Singular Plural
Nominative -a -i
Instrumental -ae -amis
Genitive -i -aen
Dative -i -amis
Accusative -au -aes
Second declension

Common nouns ending in a consonant

Second declension Singular Plural
Nominative -∅ -i
Instrumental -au -omis
Genitive -i -oen
Dative -au -omis
Accusative -o -ous

Neuter nouns ending in -o

Second declension Singular Plural
Nominative -o -a
Instrumental -au -omis
Genitive -i -oen
Dative -au -omis
Accusative -o -a
Third declension

Common nouns ending in -is

Third declension Singular Plural
Nominative -is -eis
Instrumental -e -imis
Genitive -iys -aun
Dative -iy -imis
Accusative -en -eis

Neuter nouns ending in -e

Third declension Singular Plural
Nominative -e -ia
Instrumental -e -imis
Genitive -iys -aun
Dative -iy -imis
Accusative -e -ia
Fourth declension

Common nouns ending in -us

Fourth declension Singular Plural
Nominative -us -aus
Instrumental -ou -umis
Genitive -aus -iva
Dative -au -umis
Accusative -un -aus

Neuter nouns ending in -ou

Fourth declension Singular Plural
Nominative -ou -ae
Instrumental -ou -umis
Genitive -aus -iva
Dative -au -umis
Accusative -ou -ae
Tylan declensions

Middle Tylan loanwords into the dialects of Thedish spoken around Tyulareykk used to use Tylan declension patterns during the time of the Fulkreyksk Occupation. Since Middle Tylan lacked an instrumental case, the dative case forms were used for both the dative and instrumental cases.

The Tylan language has three noun genders: terrestrial (masculine), ethereal (feminine), and spiritual (neuter). Thedish has two: common and neuter. Tylan loanwords from the terrestrial and ethereal genders are merged into the Thedish common gender, while Tylan spiritual nouns are put into the Thedish neuter gender.

The practice of using Tylan declensions in Thedish speech has since stopped, due to its reputation as a marker of pretentiousness. The declension patterns, as they are respelled into Thedish and expanded to all five noun cases, are listed below:

A-stem nouns

Tylan declension Terrestrial (Common) Ethereal (Common) Spiritual (Neuter)
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -ar -as -a -as -am -a
Instrumental -aÿ -amas -aÿ -amas -aÿ -amas
Genitive -as -an -as -an -as -an
Dative -aÿ -amas -aÿ -amas -aÿ -amas
Accusative -am -as -am -as -am -a

T-stem nouns

Tylan declension Terr. / Eth. (Common) Spiritual (Neuter)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -et, -ot -es, -os -eth, -ot -eta, -os
Instrumental -eo, -oe -etas, -otas -eo, -oe -etas, -otas
Genitive -e, -o -etan, -otan -e, -o -etan, -otan
Dative -eo, -oe -etas, -otas -eo, -oe -etas, -otas
Accusative -ent, -ont -ens, -ons -eth, -ot -eta, -os

S-stem nouns

Tylan declension Terr. / Eth. (Common) Spiritual (Neuter)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -s -tes -∅ -ta
Instrumental -ti -tim -ti -tim
Genitive -tes -ten -tes -ten
Dative -ti -tim -ti -tim
Accusative -tem -tes -∅ -ta

N-stem nouns

Tylan declension Terr. / Eth. (Common) Spiritual (Neuter)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -∅ -nes -n -na
Instrumental -ni -nim -ni -nim
Genitive -nes -nan -nes -nan
Dative -ni -nim -ni -nim
Accusative -nem -nes -n -na

I-stem and U-stem nouns

Unlike most Tylan declension patterns, the I-stem and U-stem nouns were merged into native Thedish declensions; I-stem nouns became a part of the third declension ending in -is (if in the terrestrial or ethereal classes) or -e (if in the spiritual class), while U-stem nouns were adopted into the fourth declension ending in -us (if in the terrestrial or ethereal classes) or -ou (if in the spiritual class).

L-stem and R-stem nouns

Likewise, Tylan's L-stem and R-stem declensions became a part of the Thedish second declension, taking an -o suffix if originally in the spiritual noun class, e.g. the Tylan ethereal noun nivegal "(archaic) friendship" became loaned into the Tyulareykk dialect as nevgal "friendship" (displacing the native Thedish word fryundskapht within Tyulareykk), while the Tylan spiritual noun kashel "mythical road to the afterlife/home of the Pantheon" became loaned into Thedish as kaschlo "Veil rift".

Adjectives

Thedish adjectives use two different declension patterns: the second declension for "strong" adjectives, and the third declension for "weak" adjectives. Nouns described by strong adjectives are unaccompanied by any article, while weak adjectives describe nouns that are accompanied by a definite article. There is also a mixed declension, for nouns that are accompanied by either an indefinite article, possessive determiner, or deictic pronoun.

Adjectival mixed declension (2nd + 3rd) Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -is -eis -e -ia
Instrumental -au -omis -au -omis
Genitive -iys -oen -iys -oen
Dative -au -omis -au -omis
Accusative -en -ous -e -ia

The mixed declension usually takes the forms of the second declension, except for when the ending is a short vowel or null ending, then it takes the equivalent form of the third declension.

Exceptional uses of adjectival declension patterns

Note that some noun phrases, comprised of an adjective and a noun, keep the adjective in the strong inflection even when the phrase is accompanied by a definite or indefinite article. For example, the phrase guminsklyk rhyngbildyang "walking dictionary" is literally translated as "human encyclopedia". The adjective is always kept in the strong declension since the phrase doesn't refer to an encyclopedia with traits of a human, but to a human with traits of an encyclopedia. The phrase's modified concept is the adjective, and its modifier is the noun; they are switched around for the purpose of idiomatic humor.

This does not apply to all idiomatic noun phrases. For example, the phrase flougand sviyn "unattainable goal" is literally translated as "flying pig". Here, the adjective is the modifier and the noun is the modified concept; they are not switched around for humor. The adjective flougand in the phrase is therefore declined normally: in the strong declension with no article, the weak declension with a definite article, and the mixed declension with an indefinite article.

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed fairly regularly, with few adjectives taking on suppletive forms for such degrees. The regular comparative is formed with the suffix -ar, and the superlative is formed with the suffix -ast. Examples are given below:

Positive Comparative Superlative

mikel

"great"

miklar

"greater"

miklast

"greatest"

sus

"suspicious, peculiar"

sussar

"more suspicious"

sussast

"most suspicious"

qvec

"fast, dynamic"

qveckar

"faster"

qveckast

"fastest"

scurt

"short, concise"

scurtar

"shorter, more concise"

scurtast

"shortest, most concise"

Adjectives with suppletive forms for the comparative and/or superlative degrees are listed below:

Positive Comparative Superlative

gaud

"good"

bethar

"better"

bast

"best"

mikel

"much"

mais

"more"

meyst

"most"

uvil

"bad, evil"

versar

"worse"

varst

"worst"

litel

"little, few"

lais

"less"

leyst

"least"

The adjective mikel can mean either "great" or "much". When it is used to mean "great", it takes regular forms for the comparative and superlative degrees. When it is used to mean "much", however, it takes suppletive forms for those degrees.

Articles

The Thedish language has both a definite article and an indefinite article. The definite article, coming from the word for "this, that" in the local dialect of Krimland, is inflected as follows:

Definite article Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative tho thay that tha
Instrumental thon thamm thon thamm
Genitive thos thays thos thays
Dative thom tham thom tham
Accusative than thans that tha

The indefinite article comes from the numeral word for "one" in the Vendyš language of Theden, and it is inflected as follows:

Indefinite article Common Neuter
Singular Singular
Nominative an an
Instrumental anemm anemm
Genitive anes anes
Dative anem anem
Accusative anen an

Note that the indefinite article does not have plural forms, despite the fact that the mixed declension of adjectives, which is normally only used with the indefinite article, does have plural forms. When a plural noun is described with a strongly-declined adjective, it implies the meaning of "all <noun> that are <adjective>". When an adjective in the mixed declension describes a plural noun, it implies the meaning of "some <adjective> <noun>".

Pronouns and Determiners

Thedish personal pronouns in the third-person singular distinguish between four genders: masculine, feminine, epicene, and neuter. Masculine is used to describe male sapients, feminine to describe female sapients, epicene to describe sapients of unknown or unspecified sex, and neuter to describe animals, objects, and ideas or concepts.

In the third-person plural, there are only two genders: common and neuter. Common is used for a group that includes at least one sapient being, while neuter is used for a group that does not include any sapients.

Singular personal pronouns 1st 2nd 3rd
Masculine Feminine Epicene Neuter
Nominative ek thue es sey ses et
Instrumental mebya thebya ena essa essa ena
Genitive mevi thevi esch esas esas esch
Dative mys thys emmi esou esou emmi
Accusative myk thyk em er erm et
Plural personal pronouns 1st 2nd 3rd
Common Neuter
Nominative vy yue ey aus
Instrumental nosis osis ebya ebya
Genitive nosra yusra essem essem
Dative nosmi osmi imas imas
Accusative nos yus eyns aus

Thedish second-person pronouns are subject to T-V distinction. The polite form of the singular "you" is the same as the plural form, except it is always started with a capital letter.

Thedish possessive pronouns are declined in various ways. With singular possessors myn- "my" and thyn- "your (singular)", they are declined with the forms of the second declension. With plural possessors nosr- "our" and yusr- "your (plural)", the possessive pronouns are declined with the forms of the third declension.

1st-person singular possessives Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative myn myni myno myna
Instrumental mynau mynomis mynau mynomis
Genitive myni mynoen myni mynoen
Dative mynau mynomis mynau mynomis
Accusative myno mynous myno myna
2nd-person singular possessives Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative thyn thyni thyno thyna
Instrumental thynau thynomis thynau thynomis
Genitive thyni thynoen thyni thynoen
Dative thynau thynomis thynau thynomis
Accusative thyno thynous thyno thyna
1st-person plural possessives Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative nosris nosreis nosre nosria
Instrumental nosre nosrimis nosre nosrimis
Genitive nosriys nosraun nosriys nosraun
Dative nosriy nosrimis nosriy nosrimis
Accusative nosren nosreis nosre nosria
2nd-person plural possessives Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative yusris yusreis yusre yusria
Instrumental yusre yusrimis yusre yusrimis
Genitive yusriys yusraun yusriys yusraun
Dative yusriy yusrimis yusriy yusrimis
Accusative yusren yusreis yusre yusria

There are two sets of deictic pronouns: proximal/medial "here" and distal "there".

Proximal pronouns Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative thiys thiysi thiyso thiysa
Instrumental thiysau thiysomis thiysau thiysomis
Genitive thiysi thiysoen thiysi thiysoen
Dative thiysau thiysomis thiysau thiysomis
Accusative thiyso thiysous thiyso thiysa
Distal pronouns Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative yeinis yeineis yeine yeinia
Instrumental yeine yeinimis yeine yeinimis
Genitive yeiniys yeinaun yeiniys yeinaun
Dative yeiniy yeinimis yeiniy yeinimis
Accusative yeinen yeineis yeine yeinis

Interrogative pronouns in Thedish distinguish between singular and plural, as well as common and neuter, in the expected answer, as well as distinguishing between forms of domain (scope or universe of the question) and range (expected answer of the question).

There is a set of interrogatives meaning "who/what" with a universal or unspecified domain, there is a set of interrogatives meaning "which" with the range being a member of a specified domain, and there is a set of interrogatives meaning "what kind of" with the range being a superset of the specified domain.

Interrogative pronouns Common "Who?" Neuter "What?"
Singular Plural Singular Plural

What/Who

Domain = ∞

Nominative hvas hvay hvath hva
Instrumental hvae hvamis hvae hvamis
Genitive hves hvese hves hvese
Dative hvam hvamis hvam hvamis
Accusative hvou hvans hvath hva

Which (of multiple)

Range ∈ Domain

Nominative hvaris hvaryai hvaryath hvarya
Instrumental hvaryane hvaryamis hvaryane hvaryamis
Genitive hvaryes hvaryese hvaryes hvaryese
Dative hvaryam hvaryamis hvaryam hvaryamis
Accusative hvaryue hvaryans hvaryath hvarya

What kind of...

Range ⊇ Domain

Nominative hvaliyk hvaliyki hvaliyko hvaliyka
Instrumental hvaliykau hvaliykomis hvaliykau hvaliykomis
Genitive hvaliyki hvaliykoen hvaliyki hvaliykoen
Dative hvaliykau hvaliykomis hvaliykau hvaliykomis
Accusative hvaliyko hvaliykous hvaliyko hvaliyka

Similarly to the Mechyrdian language, adverbial question words such as "where", "how", and "why" are formed with an inflected form of the interrogative pronoun and a particular preposition.

Universal pronouns are formed by appending the suffix -ach, originally meaning "and" in the Rumonis dialect, to the interrogative pronoun hvas.

Universal pronoun "anyone/whoever, anything/whatever" Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative hvasach hvayach hvathach hvaech
Instrumental hvahach hvamisach hvahach hvamisach
Genitive hvessach hvesach hvessach hvesach
Dative hvamach hvamisach hvamach hvamisach
Accusative hvauvach hvansach hvathach hvaech

Negative pronouns are formed by declining the word nyhht "not" in the third declension.

Negative pronoun "no, none" Common Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative nyhhtis nyhhteis nyhhte nyhhtia
Instrumental nyhhte nyhhtimis nyhhte nyhhtimis
Genitive nyhhtiys nyhhtaun nyhhtiys nyhhtaun
Dative nyhhtiy nyhhtimis nyhhtiy nyhhtimis
Accusative nyhhten nyhhteis nyhhte nyhhtia

Numerals

# Cardinal Ordinal Multiplier Collective Fractional
0 syfar syfratha nyhht nullitaet -
1 ayn framyst aynst monad -
2 tvay annar tvayst baith halva
3 threy thryda thryst - thryda
4 fedvar fedurtha fedvarau synthomis - fedurtha
5 fymvar fymurtha fymvarau synthomis - fymurtha
6 sahht sahhtha sahhtau synthomis - sahhtha
7 saybun saybuntha saybunau synthomis - saybuntha
8 ahtau ahtutha ahtau synthomis - ahtutha
9 neyn nentha neynau synthomis - nentha
10 tain taintha tainau synthomis - taintha
11 anlyva anlueth anlyva synthomis - anlueth
12 tvalva tvalueth tvalva synthomis - tvalueth
13 thretein threteintha threteinau synthomis - threteintha
14 feurtein feurteintha feurteinau synthomis - feurteintha
15 fymtein fymteintha fymteinau synthomis - fymteintha
16 sahhtein sahhteintha sahhteinau synthomis - sahhteintha
17 sebuntein sebunteintha sebunteinau synthomis - sebunteintha
18 aghtein aghteintha aghteinau synthomis - aghteintha
19 nentein nenteintha nenteinau synthomis - nenteintha
20 tvay taini annar taini tvay taini synthomis - annar taini
21 tvay taini ayn tvay taini framyst tvay taini aynau synthomis - tvay taini framyst
22 tvay taini tvay tvay taini tvayst tvay taini tvay synthomis - tvay taini tvayst
23 tvay taini threy tvay taini thryda tvay taini threy synthomis - tvay taini thryda
24 tvay taini fedvar tvay taini fedurtha tvay taini fedvarau synthomis - tvay taini fedurtha
25 tvay taini fymvar tvay taini fymurtha tvay taini fymvarau synthomis - tvay taini fymurtha
26 tvay taini sahht tvay taini sahhtha tvay taini sahhtau synthomis - tvay taini sahhtha
27 tvay taini saybun tvay taini saybuntha tvay taini saybunau synthomis - tvay taini saybuntha
28 tvay taini ahtau tvay taini ahtutha tvay taini ahtau synthomis - tvay taini ahtutha
29 tvay taini neyn tvay taini nentha tvay taini neynau synthomis - tvay taini nentha
30 threy taini thryda taini threy taini synthomis - thryda taini
40 fedvar taini fedurtha taini fedvar taini synthomis - fedurtha taini
50 fymvar taini fymurtha taini fymvar taini synthomis - fymurtha taini
60 sahht taini sahhtha taini sahht taini synthomis - sahhtha taini
70 saybun taini saybuntha taini saybun taini synthomis - saybuntha taini
80 ahtau taini ahtutha taini ahtau taini synthomis - ahtutha taini
90 neyn taini neyntha taini neyn taini synthomis - neyntha taini
100 hunda hundath hunda synthomis kenturr hundath
101 hunda ayn hunda framyst hunda ayn synthomis - hunda framyst
102 hunda tvay hunda annar hunda tvay synthomis - hunda annar
200 tvay hundi tvay hundath tvay hundi synthomis - tvay hundath
1,000 thusanda thusandath thusanda synthomis mill thusandath
1,001 thusanda ayn thusanda framyst thusanda ayn synthomis - thusanda framyst
1,002 thusanda tvay thusanda annar thusanda tvay synthomis - thusanda annar
2,000 tvay thusandi tvay thusandath tvay thusandi synthomis - tvay thusandath
10,000 tain thusandi tain thusandath tain thusandi synthomis miryad tain thusandath

106

1,0002

1,000,000

milyon milyonath milyon synthomis - milyonath

109

1,0003

1,000 × 1,000,000

thunsanda milyoni thunsanda milyonath thunsanda milyoni synthomis - thunsanda milyonath

1012

1,0004

1,000,0002

bilyon bilyonath bilyon synthomis - bilyonath

1015

1,0005

1,000 × 1,000,0002

thunsanda bilyoni thunsanda bilyonath thunsanda bilyoni synthomis - thunsanda bilyonath

1018

1,0006

1,000,0003

thrilyon thrilyonath thrilyon synthomis - thrilyonath

1021

1,0007

1,000 × 1,000,0003

thunsanda thrilyoni thunsanda thrilyonath thunsanda thrilyoni synthomis - thunsanda thrilyonath

1024

1,0008

1,000,0004

fedvaryon fedvaryonath fedvaryon synthomis - fedvaryonath

1027

1,0009

1,000 × 1,000,0004

thunsanda fedvaryoni thunsanda fedvaryonath thunsanda fedvaryoni synthomis - thunsanda fedvaryonath

1030

1,00010

1,000,0005

fymvaryon fymvaryonath fymvaryon synthomis - fymvaryonath

1033

1,00011

1,000 × 1,000,0005

thunsanda fymvaryoni thunsanda fymvaryonath thunsanda fymvaryoni synthomis - thunsanda fymvaryonath

1036

1,00012

1,000,0006

sahtyon sahtyonath sahtyon synthomis - sahtyonath

1039

1,00013

1,000 × 1,000,0006

thunsanda sahtyoni thunsanda sahtyonath thunsanda sahtyoni synthomis - thunsanda sahtyonath

1042

1,00014

1,000,0007

sebunyon sebunyonath sebunyon synthomis - sebunyonath

Numerals ending in a vowel are usually indeclinable, unless they end in -a, then they use the first declension's forms. Numerals ending in a consonant use the second declension's forms.

Verbs

Thedish verbs are conjugated in two types: strong and weak. Strong verbs are conjugated with vowel alternation or reduplication, while weak verbs are conjugated purely by appending suffixes.

The present and preterite tenses are conjugated in the verb itself, while perfect, pluperfect, future, and future perfect use periphrastic conjugations. There are two voices: active and passive, and three moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative. There is an active participle and a passive participle, but only one infinitive.

Strong verbs

Stem vowels Strong verb class
Form I II III IVa IVb V VI VII
Pres. tense -iy- -ou- -i- -i- -u- -i- -a- CV-
Past ind. -ay- -au- -a- -a- -a- -au- CayCV-
Past subj. -i- -u- -u- -ey- -ey-
Pass. part. -u- -i- -a- CV-

After the syllable that is subject to apophony, strong verbs take the following endings:

Non-finite forms Infinitive (1) -an
Active participle (1) -and Passive participle (4) -an
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular (1) -a (2) - (1) -au (3) -yao
2nd singular (1) -est (2) *-st (1) -ais (3) -iys
3rd singular (1) -eth (2) - (1) -ai (3) -iy
1st plural (1) -am (2) -em (1) -aima (3) -iyma
2nd plural (1) -eth (2) -eth (1) -aith (3) -iyth
3rd plural (1) -end (2) -en (1) -aina (3) -iyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
(1) - laet nos (1) -an laeted nos (1) -an (1) -ed

Endings marked with an asterisk * either drop the stem's final consonant or assimilate it into the ending, depending on the consonants involved. Each ending is numbered based on the pattern of the stem:

  1. Present tense stem
  2. Past tense indicative stem
  3. Past tense subjunctive stem
  4. Passive participle stem

Strong class I - liythan "to undergo, suffer"

Non-finite forms Infinitive liythan
Active participle liythand Passive participle lidan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular liytha layth liythau lithyao
2nd singular liythest layst liythais lithiys
3rd singular liytheth layth liythai lithiy
1st plural liytham laythem liythaima lithiyma
2nd plural liytheth laytheth liythaith lithiyth
3rd plural liythend laythen liythaina lithiyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
liyth laet nos liythan laeted nos liythan liythed

Strong class II - lougan "to lie, tell an intentional falsehood"

Non-finite forms Infinitive lougan
Active participle lougand Passive participle lugan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular louga laug lougau lugyao
2nd singular lougest laught lougais lugiys
3rd singular lougeth laug lougai lugiy
1st plural lougam laugem lougaima lugiyma
2nd plural lougeth laugeth lougaith lugiyth
3rd plural lougend laugen lougaina lugiyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
loug laet nos lougan laeted nos lougan louged

Strong class III - drinkan "to drink"

Non-finite forms Infinitive drinkan
Active participle drinkand Passive participle drunkan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular drinka drank drinkau drunkyao
2nd singular drinkest drankht drinkais drunkiys
3rd singular drinketh drank drinkai drunkiy
1st plural drinkam drankem drinkaima drunkiyma
2nd plural drinketh dranketh drinkaith drunkiyth
3rd plural drinkend dranken drinkaina drunkiyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
drink laet nos drinkan laeted nos drinkan drinked

Strong class IVa - niman "to take"

Non-finite forms Infinitive niman
Active participle nimand Passive participle numan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular nima nam nimau neymyao
2nd singular nimest namt nimais neymiys
3rd singular nimeth nam nimai neymiy
1st plural nimam namem nimaima neymiyma
2nd plural nimeth nameth nimaith neymiyth
3rd plural nimend namen nimaina neymiyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
nim laet nos niman laeted nos niman nimed

Strong class IVb - trudan "to step, tread"

Non-finite forms Infinitive trudan
Active participle trudand Passive participle trudan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular truda trad trudau treydyao
2nd singular trudest trast trudais treydiys
3rd singular trudeth trad trudai treydiy
1st plural trudam tradem trudaima treydiyma
2nd plural trudeth tradeth trudaith treydiyth
3rd plural trudend traden trudaina treydiyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
trud laet nos trudan laeted nos trudan truded

Strong class V - qvithan "to say, speak"

Non-finite forms Infinitive qvithan
Active participle qvithand Passive participle qvithan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular qvitha qvath qvithau qveythyao
2nd singular qvithest qvast qvithais qveythiys
3rd singular qvitheth qvath qvithai qveythiy
1st plural qvitham qvathem qvithaima qveythiyma
2nd plural qvitheth qvatheth qvithaith qveythiyth
3rd plural qvithend qvathen qvithaina qveythiyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
qvith laet nos qvithan laeted nos qvithan qvithed

Strong class VI - alan "to grow, increase, be augmented, (of numbers) be added"

Non-finite forms Infinitive alan
Active participle aland Passive participle alan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular ala aul alau aulyao
2nd singular alest ault alais auliys
3rd singular aleth aul alai auliy
1st plural alam aulem alaima auliyma
2nd plural aleth auleth alaith auliyth
3rd plural alend aulen alaina auliyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
al laet nos alan laeted nos alan aled

Strong class VII - valdan "to rule, govern"

Non-finite forms Infinitive valdan
Active participle valdand Passive participle valdan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular valda vayvald valdau vayvaldyao
2nd singular valdest vayvalst valdais vayvaldiys
3rd singular valdeth vayvald valdai vayvaldiy
1st plural valdam vayvaldem valdaima vayvaldiyma
2nd plural valdeth vayvaldeth valdaith vayvaldiyth
3rd plural valdend vayvalden valdaina vayvaldiyna
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
vald laet nos valdan laeted nos valdan valded

Weak verbs

Weak verbs are conjugated with a single thematic vowel; which vowel this is determines which weak class the verb falls into. Weak class I uses the vowel a, weak class II uses the vowel o, weak class III uses the vowel e, and weak class IV uses the vowel i.

The past tenses of weak verbs are formed with these suffixes:

Subject Indicative Subjunctive
1st singular -ta -tatho
2nd singular -tes -tethys
3rd singular -ta -tethie
1st plural -tam -tatham
2nd plural -teth -tethet
3rd plural -ten -tethyn

Weak class I - havan "to have"

Non-finite forms Infinitive havan
Active participle havand Passive participle havath
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular hava havata havau havatatho
2nd singular havest havates havais havatethys
3rd singular haveth havata havai havatethie
1st plural havam havatam havaima havatatham
2nd plural haveth havateth havaith havatethet
3rd plural havend havaten havaina havatethyn
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
hav laet nos havan laeted nos havan haved

Weak class II - militon "to serve as a soldier"

Non-finite forms Infinitive militon
Active participle militond Passive participle militoth
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular milito militota militou militotatho
2nd singular militest militotes militais militotethys
3rd singular militeth militota militai militotethie
1st plural militom militotam militoima militotatham
2nd plural militeth militoteth militaith militotethet
3rd plural militend militoten militaina militotethyn
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
milit laet nos militon laeted nos militon milited

Weak class III - soken "to seek, search for"

Non-finite forms Infinitive soken
Active participle sokend Passive participle soketh
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular soke soketa sokeu soketatho
2nd singular sokest soketes sokais soketethys
3rd singular soketh soketa sokai soketethie
1st plural sokem soketam sokeima soketatham
2nd plural soketh soketeth sokaith soketethet
3rd plural sokend soketen sokaina soketethyn
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
sok laet nos soken laeted nos soken soked

Weak class IV - botin "to benefit, cause profit for, be of advantage to"

Non-finite forms Infinitive botin
Active participle botyand Passive participle botith
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular botya botita botyu botitatho
2nd singular botest botites botais botitethys
3rd singular boteth botita botai botitethie
1st plural botyam botitam botiyma botitatham
2nd plural boteth botiteth botaith botitethet
3rd plural botend botiten botaina botitethyn
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
bot laet nos botin laeted nos botin boted

Irregular verbs

Thedish has only two highly irregular verbs: visan "to be", and don "to do, make".

Non-finite forms Infinitive visan
Active participle visand Passive participle visan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular em vas siyo veyso
2nd singular ert vast siyes veysis
3rd singular ist vas siye veysie
1st plural iysem vasem siym veysim
2nd plural iysed vased siyth veysid
3rd plural sinth vasen siyn veysin
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
ves laet nos visan laeted nos visan vesed

The passive participle visan is only used to conjugate the passive voice in the perfect and pluperfect tenses. It does not have any meaning outside of such usage.

Non-finite forms Infinitive don
Active participle dond Passive participle deyn
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular da deda dau dedatho
2nd singular dost dedes dos dedethys
3rd singular doth deda doi dedethie
1st plural dom dedam doima dedatham
2nd plural doth dedeth doith dedethet
3rd plural dond deden doina dedethyn
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
do laet nos don laeted nos don dod
Suppletive verbs

Thedish also has a suppletive verb: gangan, which uses the forms of a different verb in the past tense. This different verb is also irregular, conjugated in accordance with the former local language of Severnaia region; its native infinitive form is idti. For the past subjunctive forms, Thedish inflections were used with the stem id- since the Severnaian language lacked any subjunctive mood.

Non-finite forms Infinitive gangan
Active participle gangand Passive participle gangan
Finite forms Indicative Subjunctive
Present Past Present Past
1st singular ganga idu gangau idtatho
2nd singular gangest idyosch gangais idtethys
3rd singular gangeth idyoth gangai idtethie
1st plural gangam idyom gangaima idtatham
2nd plural gangeth idyote gangaith idtethet
3rd plural gangend idut gangaina idtethyn
Imperatives 2nd singular 1st dual 1st plural 2nd plural
gang laet nos gangan laeted nos gangan ganged

Periphrastic conjugations

Periphrastic conjugations are used for the perfect, pluperfect, future, and future perfect tenses, as well as for the passive voice in all tenses. The perfect tense uses the present forms of the weak class I verb havan "to have" with a passive participle that agrees with the object of a transitive verb, or the subject of an intransitive verb. Likewise, the pluperfect tense functions similarly, except it uses the preterite forms of havan.

The future tense uses the present forms of the strong class III verb virthan "to become" with an infinitive. and the future perfect tense uses the preterite forms of virthan. The passive voice uses the irregular verb visan "to be" with a passive participle.

A full table of periphrastic conjugations, using the first-person singular forms of the strong class II verb tyouhan "command", is displayed below:

Tense Active Passive
Present

Ek tyouha

"I command"

"I am commanding"

Ek em tyuhan

"I am commanded"

"I am being commanded"

Preterite

Imperfect

Ek tyauhh

"I commanded"

"I was commanding"

Ek vas tyuhan

"I was commanded"

"I was being commanded"

Perfect

Ek hava tyuhan (intransitive)

"I have commanded"

Ek hava tyuhano X (singular common/neuter object)

Ek hava tyuhanous X (plural common object)

Ek hava tyuhana X (plural neuter object)

"I have commanded X"

Ek hava visan tyuhan

"I have been commanded"

Pluperfect

Ek havata tyuhan (intransitive)

"I had commanded"

Ek havata tyuhano X (singular common/neuter object)

Ek havata tyuhanous X (plural common object)

Ek havata tyuhana X (plural neuter object)

"I had commanded X"

Ek havata visan tyuhan

"I had been commanded"

Future

Ek virtha tyouhan

"I will command"

Ek virtha visan tyuhan

"I will be commanded"

Future Perfect

Ek varth tyouhan

"I will have commanded"

Ek varth visan tyuhan

"I will have been commanded"

Syntax

Word order

The word order of Thedish is fairly free, with its pragmatism on a level comparable to Old Tylan. Thedish has a basic neutral word order:

A nominal verb complement is a direct object that does not reference any particular argument of the sentence, but instead specifies the action of the verb itself, e.g. the word vygo "war" in the phrase vygo tyouhan "to wage war".

Some examples of neutral word order include:

Emphasizing various elements of a sentence is usually done by moving it to the initial position, with the exception of the subject; since the subject is already in the initial position with neutral word order, the verb is instead moved to the final position in the sentence:

In imperative statements, the verb is always put first. In wh-questions using an interrogative pronoun, the question word is always put first and the verb second. In wh-questions using an interrogative adjective, the question word is put first, the noun it describes is second, and the verb third. If the interrogative pronoun is the object of a preposition, the preposition is put at the end of the sentence. In yes/no questions, the word tscy "if" is put first, followed by the verb:

Adjectives are usually put before nouns, but on occasion they are put after the noun. Thedish syntax allows for hyperbaton, or the separation of adjective and noun by intervening words, with the result of emphasizing the adjective or the noun.

Pokhvalish dialect

The Pokhvalish dialect (Pochvalsko jargo) of Thedish refers to the current form of what was originally the Pokhvalish language. When the Fulkreyksk government was centralizing the various languages of Theden into a single tongue, Forarr Vrankenn Kassck and his successor Dagobar Orsh specifically allowed people who spoke Pokhvalish to continue doing so. Over time, however, the language naturally became assimilated to become more like the worldwide Thedish speech, though it retained some idiosyncrasies that distinguish it as a dialect.

The following table contains some of the words or phrases that are unique to Pokhvalish speech:

Pokhvalish Thedish loanword Translation
Nouns and Adjectives - Clothing, Attire
miv miv (II com.) miff, Pokhvalish cultural headwear
Nouns and Adjectives - People, Society
bEKom beykhom (II com.) girlfriend
bortas bortas (II com.) blood revenge, vengeance for the slaying of kin
bortassoqer bortassokerr (II com.) blood avenger, someone who seeks bortas
isleT isleth (II com.) guards, police, "pork"; typically used in a derogatory fashion
mUl muel (adjective) stubborn, obstinate
todzah todzah (II com.) idiot, fool
CeC tzetz (II com.) drunkard; in standard Thedish this is drunkahauvd
Nouns and Adjectives - Food, Wildlife
gaQ gaqh (II com.) a dish prepared from a Thedish serpent trout, typically fried
Kop khop (adjective) cold, "gone cold", used only to describe food that is no longer ready to eat
liNta lingta (I com.) lingta steak, prepared from the right side of a lingto
rahtaj rahtaj (II com.) coffee with stimulant drugs mixed in, likely invented to emulate the Tylans' pashral
Verbs
seNgan sengan (weak class I) to cause trouble
soppan soppan (weak class I) to eat
sUdan suidan (weak class I) to gamble
Interjections
Giq tAl! ghick taal! "to the bitter end!"
hov do'jaj! hov do'jaj! "good luck!"
Kapla! khapla! "success!", "well done!", "congratulations!"
Ku'vaT! khu'vath! "%&@#!"; extreme invective used in anger

Note that this is not a comprehensive guide to the Pokhvalish dialect of Thedish.

The Pokhwalish dialect also has its own alphabet, separate from the Thedish alphabet:

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